The CFPB recently issued A Regulatory and Reporting Overview Reference Chart for HMDA Data Collected in 2019. As previously reported, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act created an exemption from the reporting of the new HMDA data categories for smaller mortgage loan volume depository institutions and credit unions. The 2019 Chart is updated from the 2018 version to include guidance on how to address data categories that do not have to be reported under the exemption. The 2019 Chart also provides how a lender that elects not to report a Universal Loan Identifier for an application or loan under the exemption would report a Non-Universal Loan Identifier for the application or loan.

Unrelated to the exemption, the 2019 Chart also includes additional guidance on the reporting of the Credit Scoring Model and the reporting of the Automated Underwriting System result.

As previously reported, in September 2017 the CFPB proposed policy guidance regarding what application-level Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data would be disclosed to the public based on the significant expansion to the HMDA data reporting items that the CFPB adopted in October 2015. Calendar year 2018 was the first year that reporting institutions collected data under the expanded requirements, and that data must be reported to the government by March 1, 2019. Not long after Kathy Kraninger became the new CFPB Director, the CFPB announced the final policy guidance regarding the application-level HMDA data that will be made available to the public. Unfortunately, by adopting final guidance that is very similar to the proposed guidance, the CFPB is emphasizing public disclosure over consumer privacy concerns.

HMDA requires the modification of data released to the public “for the purpose of protecting the privacy interests of mortgage applicants”. Under the prior HMDA requirements, the application or loan number, the date the application was received and the date the institution took final action on the application were removed from the application-level data that was released to the public. However, even under the prior HMDA requirements, there were concerns that by combining the publicly available HMDA data with other data sources, the identity of each applicant can be determined. With the significant expansion of the HMDA data items, as well as the overall increase in data on consumers that is available in the marketplace, the privacy concerns are even greater. For example, the revised HMDA data items include, among other items, the applicant’s age, income (which is currently reported), credit score, and debt-to-income ratio; the automated underwriting results; the property address; loan cost information; and, for denied applications, the principal denial reasons.

When the CFPB adopted the October 2015 revisions it deferred making a decision on which elements of the expanded HMDA data would be reported on an application-level basis. However, the CFPB indicated that it would use a balancing test to decide what information to disclose publicly, and would allow public input on the information that it proposed to disclose. At that time the CFPB advised that
“[c]‍‍‍onsidering the public disclosure of HMDA data as a whole, applicant and borrower privacy interests arise under the balancing test only where the disclosure of HMDA data may both substantially facilitate the identification of an applicant or borrower in the data and disclose information about the applicant or borrower that is not otherwise public and may be harmful or sensitive.” The CFPB echoed the balancing test approach in adopting the final guidance. However, the approach is off balance, as it sides too much on the side of public disclosure, ignoring valid consumer privacy concerns.

Under the final policy guidance, the CFPB will make all of the HMDA data available to the public on an application-level basis, except as follows:

  • The following information would not be disclosed to the public (the non-disclosure of the first three items is consistent with prior public disclosure practices):
    • The universal loan identifier.
    • The date the application was received or the date shown on the application form (whichever was reported).
    • The date of the action taken on the application.
    • The property address.
    • The credit score(s) relied on.
    • The NMLS identifier for the mortgage loan originator.
    • The automated underwriting system result.
    • The free form text fields for the following (the standard fields reported would be disclosed):
      • The applicant’s race and ethnicity.
      • The name and version of the credit scoring model.
      • The principal reason(s) for denial.
      • The automated underwriting system name.
  • The CFPB will disclose in a modified format the loan amount, age of the applicant, the applicant’s debt-to-income ratio, the property value, the total individual dwelling units in the property, and for a multi-family dwelling the individual dwelling units that are income-restricted.
    • For the loan amount, the CFPB will disclose:
      • The midpoint for the $10,000 interval into which the reported value falls, such as $115,000 for amounts of $110,000 to less than $120,000. (Under prior requirements the loan amount was reported to the nearest $1,000, and the reported amount was disclosed to the public.)
      • Whether the reported loan amount exceeds the Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac conforming loan limit.
    • For the age of the applicant, the CFPB will disclose:
      • Ages of applicants in the following ranges: Under 25, 25 to 34, 35 to 44, 45 to 54, 55 to 64, 65 to 74, and over 74.
      • Whether the reported age is 62 or over. For purposes of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act, a person is considered elderly if they are age 62 or over.
    • For the debt-to-income ratio, the CFPB will disclose:
      • The reported debt-to-income ratio for reported values of 36% to less than 50%, and other debt-to-income ratios in the following ranges: under 20%, 20% to less than 30%, 30% to less than 36%, 50% to less than 60% and 60% or higher. As proposed, the reported debt-to-income level would have been disclosed for reported values of 40% to less than 50%.
    • For the property value, the CFPB will disclose the midpoint for the $10,000 interval into which the reported value falls, such as $115,000 for amounts of $110,000 to less than $120,000.
    • For the total individual dwelling units in the property, the CFPB will disclose:
      • The reported number of units for reported values below 5, and other unit numbers in the following ranges: 5 to 24, 25 to 49, 50 to 99, 100 to 149 and over 149. The CFPB had proposed to disclose the actual number of units reported.
    • For the individual dwelling units in a multifamily property that are income-restricted, the CFPB will disclose the reported value as a percentage, rounded to the nearest whole number, of the value reported for the total individual dwelling units. The CFPB had proposed to disclose the actual number of units reported.

Although the loan amount will now be reported in the applicable $10,000 interval and not to the nearest $1,000, the concern is that the totality of the information that is publicly available will make it easier than it is today to determine the identity of the applicant. Thus, based on the final policy guidance, there is a risk that a significant amount of information that consumers view as being confidential will become publicly available. The CFPB essentially dismissed most privacy concerns raised by parties commenting on the proposed policy guidance.

While the final policy guidance favors public disclosure over consumer privacy concerns, the final policy guidance may have a limited life. As previously reported, the CFPB has indicated that it plans to reopen HMDA rulemaking to reconsider various aspects of the revised HMDA rule, including the discretionary data points that were added by the CFPB. We noted previously that the CFPB’s Fall Rulemaking Agenda has a target of May 2019 for the issuance of a notice of proposed rulemaking. Potentially, the CFPB may eliminate entirely, or modify, one or more data categories that are included in the information disclosed publicly. The CFPB states as follows in the supplementary information to the final policy guidance: “The Bureau intends to commence a rulemaking in the spring of 2019 that will enable it to identify more definitively modifications to the data that the Bureau determines to be appropriate under the balancing test and incorporate these modifications into a legislative rule. The rulemaking will reconsider the determinations reflected in this final policy guidance based upon the Bureau’s experience administering the final policy guidance in 2019 and on a new rulemaking record, including data concerning the privacy risks posed by the disclosure of the HMDA data and the benefits of such disclosure in light of HMDA’s purposes.” Thus, in addition to reconsidering the HMDA rule itself, the CFPB already plans to reconsider the approach to public disclosure taken in the final policy guidance.

The adoption of policy guidance that favors public disclosure over consumer privacy appears contrary to the approach of former Acting Director Mulvaney. Perhaps the action reflects that Director Kraninger will take a different approach. Or perhaps Director Kraninger simply decided to initially punt on the issue. The guidance needed to be adopted in view the impending March 1 filing deadline for HMDA data. But as noted above, the CFPB intends to revisit both the HMDA rule itself and the policy guidance. Perhaps Director Kraninger will reassess the approach during the upcoming rulemaking.

Note that while the approach to the public disclosure of HMDA data is adopted in the form of public guidance and not a formal rule, the CFPB advises in the supplementary information to the guidance that pursuant to the Congressional Review Act it will file the guidance with Congress. As we previously reported, the Government Accountability Office determined that the CFPB bulletin on “Indirect Auto Lending and Compliance with the Equal Credit Opportunity Act” was a rule subject to the Congressional Review Act, and subsequently under the Act Congress passed, and President Trump signed, legislation disapproving the bulletin. Presumably, this result influenced the decision of the CFPB to file the policy guidance with Congress under the Act.

As previously reported, late in 2018 the CFPB announced the availability of a beta version of a Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data platform for companies to test the filing of 2018 data. The CFPB has now announced that the beta testing period is closed and the HMDA data platform is open for the filing of 2018 data. The HMDA data platform can be accessed here.

All test data that companies uploaded during the beta testing period has been removed from the data platform. However, all user accounts created during the 2018 beta testing period, and also for the filing of 2017 data, will be maintained for the 2018 filing period. The reporting deadline for 2018 HMDA data is March 1, 2019.

The CFPB has made available a beta version of its 2018 HMDA data platform. The platform is for the reporting of data collected in 2018 that must be reported in 2019.

During the beta period, reporting institutions can test and retest 2018 HMDA data files as often as desired to assess if their Loan Application Register (LAR) data complies with the reporting requirements outlined in the Filing Instructions Guide for HMDA data collected in 2018.

No 2018 data can actually be submitted through the platform until January 2019. Based on the substantial changes to HMDA data for 2018, testing whether LAR data complies with the reporting requirements will likely be beneficial for many reporting institutions.

The CFPB recently issued revised versions of the small entity compliance guides for the Loan Originator Rule and the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act (HOEPA) Rule.

While some of the most well-known provisions of the Loan Originator Rule are the provisions addressing loan originator compensation, the rule also defines the concept of a loan originator and addresses qualification and other requirements related to loan originators. Among various changes, the guide for the Loan Originator Rule is revised to reflect (1) the broadening of an exemption from the concept of a loan originator with regard to retailers of manufactured and modular homes and their employees made by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (Act), which was adopted earlier this year (2) the process for contacting the CFPB with informal inquiries about the rule, and (3) that the TILA/RESPA Integrated Disclosure (TRID) rule is now in effect (the prior version of the guide was issued in March 2015 and the TRID rule became effective in October 2015).

Among various changes, the guide for the HOEPA Rule is revised to reflect (1) the broadening of the exemption from the concept of a loan originator made by the Act (which is noted above), as this can affect the requirement to include loan originator compensation in points and fees for purposes of the points and fees threshold under the HOEPA rule, and (2) the process for contacting the CFPB with informal inquiries about the rule.

Note that for purposes of the points and fees cap to determine qualified mortgage loan status under the ability to repay rule, the definition of “points and fees” set forth in the HOEPA rule is used. As a result, corresponding changes likely will be made to the provisions of the small entity compliance guide for the ability to repay rule to reflect that the Act’s broadening of the exemption from the concept of a loan originator with regard to retailers of manufactured and modular homes and their employees may affect the calculation of points and fees for qualified mortgage purposes. The current version of such guide was issued in March 2016, and the version of the guide on the CFPB’s website includes a notice that the guide has not been updated to reflect the Act.

 

A number of housing and financial industry trade groups, including the Mortgage Bankers Association and Real Estate Services Providers Council, Inc. (RESPRO®), recently sent a letter to Senators Mitch McConnell (R-KY) and Charles E. Schumer (D-NY) supporting the confirmation of Kathleen Kraninger as CFPB Director.

The trade groups state that Ms. Kraninger “has the ability to lead and manage a large government agency, like the Bureau, which is tasked to ensure consumers’ financial interests are protected,” and “also fulfill the equally important role of ensuring businesses have the necessary compliance support to further those interests.”

Addressing concerns regarding the CFPB, the trade groups state “Our members believe the Bureau must improve its examination, enforcement, rulemaking and guidance processes to assist with regulatory compliance and bring certainty in the marketplace. As evidenced during the Senate Banking Committee confirmation hearing, Ms. Kraninger’s testimony conveyed a commitment to such actions along with a thoughtful review of the law for corresponding administrative actions.”

As we reported previously, the Senate Banking Committee voted to approve Ms. Kraninger’s nomination as CFPB Director, but the full Senate has not acted on the nomination. If the Senate does not act on Ms. Kraninger’s nomination during the lame-duck session, the nomination will be returned to President Trump. Once the new Congress convenes next year, the President could re-nominate Ms. Kraninger or nominate another individual for CFPB Director. As we reported previously, under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act Mick Mulvaney can continue to serve as Acting CFPB Director for a 210-day period if Ms. Kraninger’s nomination is returned or rejected, and once another nomination is made he could serve as Acting Director during the Senate’s consideration of the second nomination.

The CFPB and Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) have released the first public use file containing data from the National Survey of Mortgage Originations. The NSMO is a component of the National Mortgage Database (NMDB®) program, which we reported on previously.

Since 2014, the CFPB and FHFA have sent approximately 6,000 surveys each quarter to consumers who recently obtained mortgage loans to obtain feedback on their experiences during the origination process, their perception of the mortgage market and their future expectations. The recently issued public use file reflects data from the first 15 quarterly waves of surveys, and covers nearly 25,000 loans originated from 2013 to 2016.

Letters are sent to consumers randomly selected for the survey in both English and Spanish, and consumers who elect to complete a survey may do so in English or Spanish. The current version of the survey contains 94 questions. Topics addressed by the questions include the shopping process, factors regarding the consumer’s selection of the mortgage lender and mortgage loan, the application process, satisfaction with the lender and origination process, whether the consumer experienced certain issues at the loan closing (such as whether the loan documents were not ready or whether the consumer felt rushed or was not given time to read documents), information regarding the consumer (including demographic and income data), whether the consumer expects changes in household income or expenses, whether the consumer expects any changes in employment status, and transaction details (such as purpose for the loan, down payment amount, sources of funds for down payment, factors influencing decision to refinance, interest rate and whether rate is fixed or adjustable, parties who contributed to the payment of closing costs, the type of property and other property details).

FHFA Deputy Director Sandra Thompson stated that “The goal of the survey is to obtain information to help improve lending practices and the mortgage process for future borrowers.” CFPB Acting Director Mick Mulvaney stated that “These data will allow greater transparency, accountability, and effectiveness around borrowers’ mortgage experiences.” The surveys are intended to address the FHFA obligation under the Housing and Economic Recovery Act to conduct monthly mortgage surveys of all residential mortgages, and the CFPB obligation under Dodd-Frank to monitor the primary mortgage market, including through the use of survey data.

The CFPB recently issued a revised version of the Home Mortgage Disclosure (Regulation C) Small Entity Compliance Guide to reflect a partial exemption to Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) requirements made by the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act and a related interpretive procedural rule issued by the CFPB. Pursuant to the partial exemption, depository institutions and credit unions are exempted from the new HMDA reporting categories added by Dodd-Frank and the HMDA rule adopted by the CFPB with regard to (1) closed-end loans, if the institution or credit union originated fewer than 500 such loans in each of the preceding two calendar years, and (2) home equity lines of credit (HELOCs), if the institution or credit union originated fewer than 500 HELOCs in each of the preceding two calendar years.

There also are revisions that are not related to the partial exemption. Section 4.1.2 is revised to clarify loans that are not counted when determining if an institution’s lending volume triggers HMDA reporting. The table in Section 5.8 of the Guide regarding the loan amount reported is revised for (1) counteroffer situations when the applicant did not accept or failed to respond to the counteroffer and (2) situations in which an application is denied, closed for incompleteness or withdrawn.

Addressing the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA) 2018 Annual Convention in Washington, DC on October 15, 2018, BCFP Acting Director Mick Mulvaney advised that regulation by enforcement is dead, and that he does not care much for regulation by guidance either. He noted to the members that they have a right to know what the law is.

Acting Director Mulvaney advised that if a party is doing something that is against the law, the BCFP will take action against them. However, he advised the difference between the BCFP now from its approach under the prior Director is that if someone is doing something that complies with the law and the BCFP doesn’t like it, the BCFP will not take action.

With regard to UDAAP, Acting Director Mulvaney stated that he believes the concepts of “unfair” and “deceptive” are well established in the law, but that is not so with regard to the concept of “abusive”. He noted he asked his staff to provide examples of what is abusive that is not also either unfair or deceptive. And he signaled that the BCFP will look to engage in rulemaking on abusive.

As we have reported the MBA and other trade groups recently sent a letter to the BCFB seeking reforms in connection with the BCFP’s loan originator compensation rule. When asked by MBA President and CEO Robert Broeksmit about the letter, Acting Director Mulvaney advised that he knew the letter was received and that it is being reviewed by staff, but that he had not actually seen the letter. Mr. Broeksmit then handed Mr. Mulvaney a copy of the letter, drawing laughs from the audience.

With regard to payday lending, Acting Director Mulvaney advised that it can be really dangerous for people given the high interest rates, but that people want it so it exists. He noted he has told payday lenders they exist because bank regulators forced banks out of the business. But he stated that the OCC has signaled it will allow banks back in, and that the way to fix payday lending is through competition.