The U.S. Senate on March 14 passed S.2155, the Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act (the Act), by a vote of 67 to 31.  Although the Act would not make the sweeping changes to the Dodd-Frank Act found in the Financial CHOICE Act of 2017 (CHOICE Act), it, nevertheless, would provide financial institutions welcome relief from a number of specific Dodd-Frank provisions.

Representative Jeb Hensarling, Chairman of the House Financial Services Committee, has indicated that further negotiations between the House and Senate must take place before the House votes on the Act.  House Speaker Paul Ryan has taken a more conciliatory tone, commenting on the need for common sense bipartisan solutions in the final bill.  As a result, while a final bill can be expected to include changes to the Act, it is unclear how substantial those changes will be.  Assuming a final bill signed by President Donald J. Trump retains many, if not most, of the Act’s provisions, the Act should positively impact both smaller and larger financial institutions.  The Act would make a number of changes to provisions of Dodd-Frank and other federal laws regarding consumer mortgages, credit reporting, and loans to veterans and students.

On May 10, 2018, from 12 p.m. to 1 p.m. ET, Ballard Spahr attorneys will hold a webinar: Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act: Anatomy of the New Banking Statute.  The webinar registration form is available here.

The Act would also reduce the regulatory burdens on financial institutions—particularly financial institutions with total assets of less than $10 billion.  Bank holding companies with up to $3 billion in total assets would be permitted to comply with less restrictive debt-to-equity limitations instead of consolidated capital requirements.  This change should promote growth by smaller bank holding companies, organically or by acquisition.  Larger institutions should benefit from the higher asset thresholds that would apply to systemically important banks subject to enhanced prudential standards.  The higher thresholds may lead to increased merger activity between and among regional and super regional banks.

Although the banking industry can be expected to view the Act positively should it become law, it falls short of the CHOICE Act in several important respects. The CHOICE Act would:

  • reduce regulatory burdens on institutions based on capital levels irrespective of asset size
  • reduce the Financial Stability Oversight Council’s powers
  • repeal Dodd–Frank’s orderly liquidation authority, and
  • scale back the CFPB’s powers.

For a summary of some of the Act’s key provisions applicable to financial institutions, click here for our full alert.

The CFPB recently issued its final rule amending the timing requirements for transitioning between unmodified periodic statements and modified statements for consumers in bankruptcy.  Initially proposed on October 4, 2017, the CFPB finalized the amendments without further revision.  These changes will go into effect on April 19, 2018, along with the other servicing rule amendments adopted in 2016 that require sending periodic statements to consumers in bankruptcy.  (Part of the 2016 amendments were implemented in October 2017, and the remaining amendments will be implemented April 19, 2018.)

Under the amended rule, the single billing cycle exemption is replaced with a more uniform single statement exemption, when a mortgage servicer transitions between an unmodified and a modified bankruptcy periodic statement.  Accordingly, after a triggering event (e.g., the borrower enters bankruptcy, personal liability is discharged, or the borrower exits bankruptcy), the servicer is exempt from providing the next periodic statement or coupon book that would otherwise be required, regardless of when in the billing cycle the triggering event occurs.  As previously drafted, the exemption applied for the next periodic statement or coupon book only if the payment due date for that ensuing billing cycle was 14 days or less after the triggering event.

The amendments provide welcome help to mortgage servicers by eliminating an aspect of the new bankruptcy requirements that was unnecessarily complex and difficult to operationalize.




On February 8, 2018 the United States House of Representatives passed The Mortgage Choice Act, H.R. 1153, to revise the definition of “points and fees” for purposes of the Regulation Z ability to repay/qualified mortgage requirements and high-cost mortgage loan requirements.  Although a voice vote was held on February 7, Chairman of the House Financial Services Committee Jeb Hensarling demanded a roll call vote.  The roll call vote was 280 to 131.

The Act would amend the definition of “points and fees” for purposes of the requirements to exclude charges for title examinations, title insurance or similar purposes regardless of whether the title company is affiliated with the creditor.  Currently for such charges to be excluded from points and fees the title company must not be an affiliate of the creditor.  The Act also would make a conforming change to exclude escrowed amounts for insurance from points and fees.  Currently escrowed amounts for taxes are excluded from points and fees.

As we reported previously, last year the House passed the Financial CHOICE Act.  The Act included the same amendments to the “points and fees” definition, but was never enacted into law.  Prior bills including the same amendments have suffered the same fate.

The focus now shifts to the Senate.  Because the Mortgage Choice Act would amend Dodd-Frank provisions, that can pose difficulty for Senate passage.  With 52 Democrats joining with Republicans to pass the Act, this may indicate that the Act has a greater chance of success than Financial CHOICE Act.  No Democrats voted for the Financial CHOICE Act, and that Act included more sweeping Dodd-Frank changes than the narrow changes included in the Mortgage Choice Act.

The CFPB has launched a new online “Digital Check Tool” to be used by companies reporting HMDA data starting January 1, 2018.

More specifically, the new tool supports the Universal Loan Identifier (ULI) requirements of the revised HMDA rule.  The CFPB states on its website that the new tool can be used for two functions.  The first function is to generate a two-character check digit when a company enters a Legal Entity Identifier and loan or application ID.  The second function is to validate that a check digit is calculated correctly for any complete ULI a company enters.

The CFPB also made its rate spread calculator available for use with applications on which the final action occurred on or after January 1, 2018.

In notices published in today’s Federal Register, the CFPB adjusted the thresholds of the asset-size exemptions for collecting HMDA data and establishing an escrow account for certain mortgage loans under TILA.

Pursuant to Regulation C, which implements HMDA, depository institutions with assets below an annually adjusted threshold are exempt from HMDA data collection requirements.  In its notice, the CFPB increased the 2017 threshold of $44 million to $45 million for 2018.  Thus, depository institutions with assets of $45 million or less as of  December 31, 2017 will be exempt from collecting HMDA data in 2018.  (An institution’s exemption from collecting data in 2018 does not affect its duty to report data it was required to collect in 2017.)

Regulation Z, which implements TILA, requires creditors to establish an escrow account to pay property taxes and insurance premiums for certain first-lien higher-priced mortgages.  The rule contains an exemption for creditors that operate predominantly in rural or underserved areas that meet certain other criteria, including an annually adjusted asset-size threshold.  In its notice, the CFPB increased the 2017 threshold from $2.069 billion to $2.112 billion for 2018.  Thus, loans made by creditors with assets of less than $2.112 billion on December 31, 2017 that operate predominantly in rural or underserved areas and meet the other exemption criteria will be exempt in 2018 from the TILA escrow account requirement for higher-priced mortgage loans.  The adjustment will increase the similar Regulation Z threshold for small-creditor portfolio and balloon-payment qualified mortgages.

On November 28, 2017, the Federal Reserve Board announced a Consent Order with Peoples Bank (Peoples) in Lawrence, Kansas.  The Order charges Peoples with violating Section 5 of the Federal Trade Commission Act (FTCA) by engaging in deceptive mortgage origination practices between January 2011 and March 2015.  According to the Order, Peoples “often” gave prospective borrowers the option of paying discount points (an amount calculated as a percentage of the loan amount) at the time of closing, in order to obtain a lower interest rate.  According to the Fed, this “regularly” led borrowers to pay thousands of dollars for discount points, but did not always result in a lower interest rate.  Peoples denies the charges, but has agreed to pay $2.8 million to a settlement fund for the purpose of making restitution to the affected borrowers.  Also, while not a part of the Order, Peoples has ceased taking new mortgage applications, and is in the process of winding down its mortgage lending operation.

Section 5 of the FTCA proscribes “unfair or deceptive acts or practices in or affecting commerce.”  Here, the Federal Reserve found that Peoples’ misrepresentations were deceptive because they were likely to mislead borrowers to reasonably conclude that they obtained a lower interest rate through the payment of discount points, when in fact, many did not receive a reduced interest rate, or received a rate that was not reduced commensurate with the price they paid for the discount points.  This was found to be material because it “relate[s] to the cost of the loan paid by the borrowers.

The Consent Order notes that Peoples’ loan disclosures “gave an accurate quantitative picture of the loans’ costs.”  But according to the Fed, Peoples (which had no written policy regarding discount points) misrepresented and/or omitted the nature of the discount points, which led many reasonable consumers to incorrectly assume they were receiving a rate based on the discount points they paid, when they actually received no benefit (or not the full benefit) from their payment.  This illustrates the need for mortgage lenders to ensure they are painting an accurate picture of their mortgage products at all stages of the origination process – including advertising, loan disclosures, and communications with prospective borrowers.

Last week, members of the Senate Banking Committee announced that they had reached bipartisan agreement on “legislative proposals to improve our nation’s financial regulatory framework and promote economic growth.”  Following the announcement, Committee members released a draft of a bill (S. 2155), the “Economic Growth, Regulatory Relief, and Consumer Protection Act.”  A markup of the bill is scheduled for December 5, 2017.  Many observers believe that due to its bipartisan support, there is a strong likelihood that the bill will be enacted as part of a regulatory relief package.

Provisions of the bill relevant to providers of consumer financial services include the following:

Small Depository Qualified Mortgage (Section 101). For an insured depository institution or insured credit union, the bill would create a qualified mortgage loan entitled to the safe harbor under the ability to repay rule.  In general, the depository institution or credit union would need to hold the loan in portfolio, and the loan could not have an interest-only or negative amortization feature and would need to comply with limits on prepayment penalties.  While the creditor would need to consider and document the debt, income and financial resources of the consumer, it would not have to follow Appendix Q to the ability to repay rule.

Appraisal Exemption for Rural Areas (Section 103). The bill would provide an exemption from any appraisal requirement for a federally related transaction involving real property if (1) the property is located in a rural area, (2) the loan is less than $400,000, (3) the originator is subject to oversight by a federal financial institution regulator, and (4) no later than three days after the Closing Disclosure under the TRID rule is given to the consumer, the originator has contacted at least three state certified or licensed appraisers, as applicable, and has documented that no state certified or licensed appraiser, as applicable, is available within a reasonable period of time.  The applicable federal financial institution regulator would determine what constitutes a reasonable period of time.  The exemption would not apply to high-cost loans under the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), or when the applicable federal financial institution regulator requires the financial institution to obtain an appraisal to address safety and soundness concerns.

Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Triggers (Section 104). The bill would increase the loan volume trigger to be a reporting company under the revised Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) rule from 25 closed-end mortgage loan originations in each of the preceding two calendar years to 500 such loans in each of the two preceding calendar years.  The 25 closed-end loan trigger went into effect in 2017 for depository institutions, and goes into effect on January 1, 2018 for non-depository institutions.

The bill also would make permanent under the revised HMDA rule a trigger of 500 open-end mortgage loan originations in each of the preceding two calendar years.  As reported previously, the revised HMDA rule provided for a trigger effective January 1, 2018 of 100 open-end mortgage loan originators in each of the preceding two calendar years, and in August 2017 the CFPB temporarily raised the trigger for 2018 and 2019 to 500 open-end mortgage loans in each of the preceding two calendar years.  The bill includes a requirement for the Comptroller General of the United States to conduct a study after two years to evaluate the impact of the amendments on the amount of data available under HMDA, and submit a report to Congress within three years.

Loan Originator Transition Authority (Section 106). Subject to various conditions, the bill would establish temporary transition authority for an individual loan originator to conduct origination activity for up to 120 days from when the individual submits an application to be licensed in a state in cases in which the individual is (1) registered and then becomes employed by a state-licensed mortgage company or (2) licensed in a state and then seeks to conduct loan origination activity in another state.

TRID Rule Provisions (Section 110). The bill includes a provision that apparently is intended to eliminate the need for a second three business day waiting period under the TILA/Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act Integrated Disclosure (TRID) rule in cases in which the annual percentage rate decreases and becomes inaccurate after the initial Closing Disclosure is provided, thus triggering the need for a revised Closing Disclosure.  Currently, the TRID rule requires both a revised Closing Disclosure and a new three business day waiting period before consummation may occur.  As drafted, however, the bill would amend the TILA timing requirements for high-cost mortgages under the Home Ownership and Equity Protection Act.  The TRID rule timing requirements are set forth in Regulation Z and not TILA.  Thus, revisions to the bill are necessary to achieve the intended goal.

The bill also includes a sense of Congress provision with regard to the TRID rule, which provides that the CFPB should endeavor to provide clearer, authoritative guidance on (1) the applicability of the rule to mortgage assumptions, (2) the applicability of the rule to construction-to-permanent home loans, and the conditions under which such loans can be properly originated, and (3) the extent to which lenders can, without liability, rely on the model disclosures published by the CFPB under the rule if recent changes to the rule are not reflected in sample TRID rule forms published by the CFPB.

Credit Report Alerts (Section 301). The bill would amend the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) to require consumer reporting agencies to keep a fraud alert requested by a consumer in the consumer’s file for at least one year and allow a consumer to have one free freeze alert placed on his or her file every year and remove that alert free of charge.  Consumer reporting agencies would also have to provide free freeze alerts requested on behalf of a minor and remove such alerts free of charge.

Credit Reports of Military Veterans (Section 302). The bill would amend the FCRA to require consumer reporting agencies to exclude from credit reports certain information relating to medical debts of veterans and would establish a dispute process for veterans seeking to dispute medical debt information with a consumer reporting agency.

Protection of Seniors (Section 303). The bill would, subject to certain conditions, provide immunity from civil or administrative liability to individuals and financial institutions for disclosing the suspected exploitation of a senior citizen to various government agencies, including state or federal financial regulators, the SEC, or a law enforcement agency.

Cyber Threats (Section 501). The bill would require the Secretary of the Treasury to submit a report to Congress on the risks of cyber threats to financial institutions and U.S. capital markets that includes an analysis of how the appropriate federal banking agencies and the SEC are addressing such risks.  The report must also include Treasury’s recommendation on whether any federal banking agency or the SEC “needs additional legal authorities or resources to adequately assess and address material risks of cyber threats.”  (We note that for several years, the FTC has been calling for such additional authority, specifically in the form of rulemaking authority.  Due to the limitations of the Banking Committee’s jurisdiction, the bill’s provision focuses exclusively on the federal banking agencies, and gives no recognition to the important role of the FTC—which is under the Senate Commerce Committee’s jurisdiction–in addressing cyber threats.

We will be publishing another blog post in the near future about other provisions of the bill that may be of interest to our blog readers.

A bill to provide a “Madden fix” and three other bills relevant to mortgage lenders were included among the more than 20 bills approved by the House Financial Services Committee on November 15, 2017.   With the exception of H.R. 3221, “Securing Access to Affordable Mortgages Act,” the bills received strong bipartisan support.

The “Madden fix” bill is H.R. 3299, “Protecting Consumers’ Access to Credit Act of 2017.”  In Madden, the Second Circuit ruled that a nonbank that purchases loans from a national bank could not charge the same rate of interest on the loan that Section 85 of the National Bank Act allows the national bank to charge.  The bill would add the following language to Section 85 of the National Bank Act: “A loan that is valid when made as to its maximum rate of interest in accordance with this section shall remain valid with respect to such rate regardless of whether the loan is subsequently sold, assigned, or otherwise transferred to a third party, and may be enforced by such third party notwithstanding any State law to the contrary.”

The bill would add the same language (with the word “section” changed to “subsection” when appropriate) to the provisions in the Home Owners’ Loan Act, the Federal Credit Union Act, and the Federal Deposit Insurance Act that provide rate exportation authority to, respectively, federal and state savings associations, federal credit unions, and state-chartered banks.  The bill was approved by a vote of 42-17.  (A bill with identical language was introduced in July 2017 by Democratic Senator Mark Warner.)

Adoption of a “Madden fix” would eliminate the uncertainties created by the Second Circuit’s Madden decision.  However, it would not address a second source of uncertainty for banks that lend with assistance from third parties—the argument that the bank is not the “true lender” and accordingly cannot exercise the usury authority provided to banks by federal law.  As we have previously urged, the OCC and its sister agencies should adopt rules providing that loans funded by their supervised financial institutions in their own names as creditor are fully subject to federal banking laws (and not state usury laws).  The OCC and FDIC have previously emphasized that their supervised entities must manage and supervise the lending process in accordance with regulatory guidance and will be subject to regulatory consequences if and to the extent that loan programs are unsafe or unsound or fail to comply with applicable law.

The other approved bills relevant to mortgage lenders are:

  • H.R. 3221, “Securing Access to Affordable Mortgages Act.” The bill would amend the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act of 1989 to exempt a mortgage loan of $250,000 or less from the higher-priced mortgage loan and general property appraisal requirements if the loan appears on the creditor’s balance sheet for at least three years.  The bill would also exempt mortgage lenders and others involved in real estate transactions from incurring penalties for failing to report appraiser misconduct.  The bill was approved by a vote of 32-26.
  • H.R. 1153, “Mortgage Choice Act of 2017.” The bill would amend TILA by revising the definition of “points and fees” to exclude escrowed insurance and fees or premiums for title examination, title insurance, or similar purposes, whether or not the title-related charges are paid to an affiliate of the creditor.  The bill would direct the CFPB to issue implementing regulations within 90 days of the bill’s enactment. The bill was approved by a vote of 46-13.
  • H.R. 3978, “TRID Improvement Act of 2017.”  The bill would amend RESPA to require that the amount of title insurance premiums reflect discounts required by state law or title company rate filings. The amendment would override the TRID rule approach to the disclosure of the lender’s and the owner’s title insurance premiums if there is a discount offered on the lender’s policy when issued simultaneously with an owner’s policy.  In such cases, instead of requiring the disclosure of the actual owner’s policy premium and the actual discounted lender’s policy premium, the TRID rule currently requires the disclosure of the full, non-discounted amount of the premium for the lender’s policy, and an amount for the owner’s policy equal to the full amount of the owner’s policy premium, plus the amount for the discounted lender’s policy premium, less the full amount of the lender’s policy premium.  The bill was approved by a vote of 53-5.

On Friday November 3, 2017 the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (CFPB) announced the launch of the Internet-based platform that financial institutions will use to submit data under the Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA).

Each user will need to register online for login credentials and establish an account in order to access the platform. Financial institutions can use the beta period to test login credentials, upload sample HMDA files, perform validation on their HMDA data, receive edit reports, confirm their test data submission, and conclude the test HMDA filing process.  There is no limit on the extent to which a financial institution may use the platform for testing purposes during the beta period.

All test accounts that are created during the beta period, and test data that is uploaded during the period, will be removed from the platform when the filing period for 2017 HMDA data opens in January 2018.

The CFPB encourages institutions to provide feedback on their experiences using the platform by sending comments to