The New York Attorney General, on October 12, 2018, filed a notice of an appeal to the Second Circuit from Judge Preska’s dismissal on September 12, 2018 of all of the NYAG’s federal and state law claims, and her subsequent September 18 order amending the September 12 order to provide that the NYAG’s claims under Dodd-Frank Section 1042 were dismissed “with prejudice.”  (Section 1042 authorizes state attorneys general to initiate lawsuits based on UDAAP violations.)

On September 14, the CFPB filed an appeal with the Second Circuit from Judge Preska’s June 21, 2018 decision, as amended by her September 12 order, in which she ruled that the CFPB’s single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure is unconstitutional, struck the CFPA (Title X of Dodd-Frank) in its entirety, and dismissed the CFPB from the case.  That was followed on September 25 by RD Legal Funding’s filing of a cross-appeal with the Second Circuit from Judge Preska’s June 21 decision, as subsequently amended, in which Judge Preska had ruled that the NYAG had stated federal and state law claims against RD Legal Funding.  (Although Judge Preska’s various orders resulted in the dismissal of all of the CFPB’s and NYAG’s claims, RD Legal Funding may have filed the cross-appeal to preserve its ability to challenge Judge Preska’s June 21 ruling that the NYAG had stated claims against RD Legal Funding should the Second Circuit conclude that the CFPB’s structure is constitutional or that the structure is unconstitutional but that the proper remedy is to sever the Dodd-Frank for-cause removal provision rather than strike all of Title X.)

The Bureau’s constitutionality is now before two circuits, the Second and Fifth Circuits.  In April 2018, the Fifth Circuit agreed to hear All American Check Cashing’s interlocutory appeal from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.  Also, a petition for certiorari was recently filed in the U.S. Supreme Court by State National Bank of Big Spring which, together with two D.C. area non-profit organizations that also joined in the petition, had brought one of the first lawsuits challenging the CFPB’s constitutionality.

 

 

All American Check Cashing has filed its reply brief in its interlocutory appeal to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.

All American and the other appellants sought the interlocutory appeal after the district court denied their motion for judgment on the pleadings in a lawsuit filed by the CFPB that alleges the appellants engaged in abusive, deceptive, and unfair conduct in connection with making certain payday loans, failing to refund overpayments on those loans, and cashing consumers’ checks.  Citing the D.C. Circuit’s en banc PHH decision, the district court rejected the defendants’ argument that the CFPB is unconstitutional based on its single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure.  It subsequently agreed to certify the constitutionality issue for interlocutory appeal to the Fifth Circuit which accepted the appeal.

In its opposition brief, the CFPB argued (1) because Acting Director Mulvaney is removable at will by the President and ratified the CFPB’s decision to bring the lawsuit against the appellants, any constitutional defect that may have existed with the CFPB’s initiation of the lawsuit was cured, (2) the CFPB’s structure is constitutional under existing U.S. Supreme Court precedent, and (3) if the Fifth Circuit concludes that the CFPB’s structure is unconstitutional, the proper remedy is to strike the for-cause removal provision.

Responding to these arguments in its reply brief, All American makes the following principal arguments:

  • Not only is the CFPB’s structure unconstitutional under existing U.S. Supreme Court precedent, it is also unconstitutional under “any reasonable reading” of the Fifth Circuit’s decision in Collins v. Mnuchin which found that the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is unconstitutionally structured because it is excessively insulated from Executive Branch oversight.  To support this argument, All American applies to the CFPB each of the five factors used by the Fifth Circuit in Collins to determine whether an agency is excessively insulated.  In ruling that the FHFA is unconstitutionally structured, the Fifth Circuit acknowledged the D.C. Circuit’s en banc PHH decision finding the CFPB’s structure to be constitutional but distinguished the CFPB based on its view that the Financial Stability Oversight Council’s (FSOC) can directly control the CFPB’s actions because it holds veto-power over the CFPB’s policies.  All American observes that the Fifth Circuit’s discussion of FOSC was dicta and that the Fifth Circuit did not appear to have the benefit of adversarial briefing on the issue.  In addition, it  argues that FSOC “has very little influence over the CFPB,” noting that FSOC’s veto power requires a two-thirds vote and, because it only applies to formal regulations, that such “narrow authority has no relevance here, because no regulation is at issue.”
  • Acting Director Mulvaney’s purported ratification did not cure the constitutional violation with the CFPB’s structure because the CFPB continues to be unconstitutionally structured (with All American noting that once Kathy Kraninger is confirmed as CFPB Director, “All American will undeniably be subject to an ongoing proceeding by an invalid entity.”)  It further contends that actions of an invalid agency (as distinguished from actions taken by an invalidly appointed officer) cannot be ratified and that even if the lawsuit could be ratified, the 3-year statute of limitations for bringing CFPB enforcement actions would have run by the time of the alleged ratification.
  • Severing the for-cause removal provision is not the appropriate remedy for the CFPB’s unconstitutionality because Congress would not have wanted the CFPB’s Director to be removable at will while leaving the CFPB independent from congressional appropriations and oversight.  In support of their argument that the proper remedy is to strike the CFPA rather than sever the for-cause removal provision, All American cites the decision of Judge Preska of the Southern District of New York in RD Legal Funding.  Judge Preska ruled that the CFPB’s single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure is unconstitutional and struck Title X of Dodd-Frank in its entirety.  The CFPB has filed an appeal with the Second Circuit.  (In Collins, the Fifth Circuit determined that the appropriate remedy for the constitutional violation was to sever the for-cause removal provision from the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008, the statute that created the FHFA.  In its reply brief, All American notes that the severability analysis in Collins “was undertaken without the benefit of the adversarial process” because the appellants in Collins had conceded that severance might be appropriate.)

In August 2018, All American Check Cashing filed a petition asking the Fifth Circuit to hear their interlocutory appeal as an initial matter en banc.  The petition remains pending, with the Fifth Circuit perhaps having waited for briefing in the appeal to be concluded before ruling on the petition.  The Fifth Circuit is also considering petitions for rehearing en banc in Collins filed by both the plaintiffs and the FHFA.

 

 

 

On September 17, 2018, four Amici filed briefs in the CFPB’s case against All American Check Cashing, which is now before the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals. The Court is considering whether the structure of the CFPB is constitutional and what impact its structure, right or wrong, has on its ability to continue to prosecute claims against regulated entities. The Amici, all supporting the CFPB, were as follows:

  • Certain current and former Members of Congress involved in drafting Dodd-Frank;
  • Five people calling themselves “CFPB Separation of Powers Scholars,” including Harold Bruff, Gillian Metzger, Peter Shane, Peter Strauss, and Paul Verkuil;
  • Nine consumer advocacy groups, including Public Citizen, Inc., Americans for Financial Reform Education Fund, Center for Responsible Lending, Consumer Federation of America, Consumers Union, National Association of Consumer Advocates, National Consumer Law Center, Tzedek DC, and U.S. Public Interest Research Group Education Fund, Inc.; and
  • The Appleseed Foundation, Inc.

The Amici made substantially the same arguments made by amici supporting the CFPB in connection with the PHH case.

We have been following very closely the lawsuit filed by the CFPB and the New York Attorney General against RD Legal Funding.  We earlier reported that on June 21 Judge Preska dismissed the CFPB’s claims based on the unconstitutionality of the CFPA. We subsequently reported that on September 12 Judge Preska dismissed the claims brought by the New York Attorney General under Section 1042 of Dodd -Frank (i. e., the provision authorizing state attorneys general to initiate lawsuits based on UDAAP violations) and also dismissed the Attorney General’s state law claims for lack of subject matter jurisdiction as a result of there being no remaining federal questions in the case.

The most recent development is that yesterday Judge Preska amended her September 12 order to provide that her dismissal of the New York Attorney General’s 1042 claims are “with prejudice”. That means that the New York Attorney General should not be able to re-file her 1042 claims in state court unless and until a higher court reverses Judge Preska’s order. The CFPB has already filed an appeal with the Second Circuit and it seems likely that the New York Attorney General will do the same.

As expected, following Judge Preska’s dismissal on September 12 of all of the New York Attorney General’s federal and state law claims, the CFPB filed an appeal with the Second Circuit from Judge Preska’s June 21 ruling in the RD Legal Funding case in which she held that the CFPB’s single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure is unconstitutional, struck the CFPA (Title X of Dodd-Frank) in its entirety, and dismissed the CFPB from the case.

In its Notice of Appeal filed on September 14, the CFPB gives notice that it “appeals to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit from this Court’s June 21, 2018 Order (ECF No. 80), as amended by its September 12, 2018 Order (ECF No. 105), dismissing the Bureau’s claims against Defendants, and this Court’s Judgment (ECF No. 106) entered on September 12, 2018.”

Since Judge Preska dismissed all of its claims, the NYAG can also appeal to the Second Circuit.  Alternatively, the NYAG can refile its CFPA and state law claims in New York state court (although a state court might stay the case pending a decision by the Second Circuit in the CFPB’s appeal, particularly if the NY AG decides to appeal the dismissal of its claim brought under Dodd-Frank Section 1042.  If the NYAG appeals the jurisdictional dismissal of its state law claims, then RD Legal should be able to file a cross-appeal of Judge Preska’s June 21 decision ruling on the merits of the state law claims and denying RD Legal’s motion to dismiss.

The CFPB’s appeal means that the Bureau’s constitutionality is now before two circuits, the Second and Fifth Circuits.  In April 2018, the Fifth Circuit agreed to hear All American Check Cashing’s interlocutory appeal from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.  Also, a petition for certiorari was recently filed in the U.S. Supreme Court by State National Bank of Big Spring which, together with two D.C. area non-profit organizations that also joined in the petition, had brought one of the first lawsuits challenging the CFPB’s constitutionality.

 

On September 12, Judge Preska entered an order and judgment dismissing all of the New York Attorney General’s federal and state law claims against RD Legal Funding.  The NYAG had filed the case jointly with the CFPB and in a June 21 ruling, Judge Preska held that the CFPB’s single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure is unconstitutional, struck the CFPA (Title X of Dodd-Frank) in its entirety, dismissed the CFPB from the case, and allowed the NYAG to proceed with its CFPA and state law claims.

Judge Preska had initially rejected RD Legal’s argument that her dismissal of the CFPB from the case and striking of Dodd-Frank Title X necessitated her dismissal of the NYAG’s CFPA claims against RD Legal.  In an August 23 order, Judge Preska ruled that she would enter a Rule 54(b) judgment against the CFPB so it could immediately appeal her constitutionality ruling to the Second Circuit.  She also denied RD Legal’s request that she certify the remainder of her June 21 ruling for interlocutory appeal but granted RD Legal’s request to stay the district court proceedings pending the outcome of the CFPB’s appeal.  The NYAG thereafter sought clarification of the effect of her August 23 ruling on its federal and state law claims and the CFPB filed a proposed Rule 54(b) judgment.

In her September 12 order and judgment, Judge Preska “amends” her June 21 order to provide as follows with respect to the NYAG’s claims:

  • Having determined that invalidating Title X in its entirety is the proper remedy for the constitutional violation resulting from the CFPB’s for-cause removal provision, there is no longer a statutory basis for the NYAG to bring its CFPA claims and therefore such claims are dismissed without prejudice for lack of federal jurisdiction
  • There was no substantial federal question embedded in the NYAG’s state law claims that provided federal question jurisdiction over the state law claims. (The NYAG had argued that its state law claims raised issues involving the federal Anti-Assignment Act.)
  • The court will decline to exercise supplemental jurisdiction over the state law claims.
  • The NYAG’s state law claims are dismissed without prejudice.

Judge Preska also closed the case in her September 12 order and judgment.  Since Judge Preska has now dismissed the district court case in its entirety, a Rule 54(b) judgment is no longer necessary for the CFPB to appeal her constitutionality ruling to the Second Circuit and both the CFPB and NYAG can appeal as of right.  Alternatively, the NYAG can refile its CFPA and state law claims in New York state court (although a state court might stay the case pending the outcome of an appeal by the CFPB of the constitutionality issue.)

Judge Preska states in her September 12 order that the conclusions of law in the order “supersede and replace any legal conclusions to the contrary in the June 11, 2018 order.”  In her June 11 order, Judge Preska also concluded that under New York law, the transactions at issue were disguised loans.  As discussed in a prior blog post, we believe the court’s logic was erroneous on the loan recharacterization question.  It would seem that Judge Preska’s ruling that the court did not have jurisdiction to hear the NYAG’s state law claims means that she could not properly rule on the merits of such claims and her recharacterization of the transactions as loans is effectively nullified.

RD Legal has sent a letter to Judge Preska “to clarify a potential clerical error” in her September 12 order.  It notes that she dismissed both the NYAG’s federal and state law claims “without prejudice.”  RD Legal suggests that the court intended to dismiss the NYAG’s federal claims “with prejudice.”

The CFPB’s constitutionality is also at issue in two other pending cases.  A petition for certiorari was filed in the U.S. Supreme Court late last week by State National Bank of Big Spring which, together with two D.C. area non-profit organizations that also joined in the petition, had brought one of the first lawsuits challenging the CFPB’s constitutionality.  In April 2018, the Fifth Circuit agreed to hear All American Check Cashing’s interlocutory appeal from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.

 

 

 

The CFPB has filed its opposition brief in the interlocutory appeal of All American Check Cashing to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.

All American Check Cashing and the other appellants sought the interlocutory appeal after the district court denied their motion for judgment on the pleadings in a lawsuit filed by the CFPB that alleges the appellants engaged in abusive, deceptive, and unfair conduct in connection with making certain payday loans, failing to refund overpayments on those loans, and cashing consumers’ checks.  Citing the D.C. Circuit’s en banc PHH decision, the district court rejected the defendants’ argument that the CFPB is unconstitutional based on its single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure.  It subsequently agreed to certify the constitutionality issue for interlocutory appeal to the Fifth Circuit which accepted the appeal.

In its brief, the CFPB makes the following principal arguments:

  • Because Acting Director Mulvaney is removable at will by the President and ratified the CFPB’s decision to bring the lawsuit against the appellants, any constitutional defect that may have existed with the CFPB’s initiation of the lawsuit was cured.  (The CFPB unsuccessfully attempted to use this argument in opposing the Fifth Circuit’s acceptance of the interlocutory appeal and in attempting to persuade Judge Preska that she need not rule on the CFPB’s constitutionality in the RD Legal Funding case.)
  • The CFPB’s structure is constitutional under existing U.S. Supreme Court precedent.
  • If the Fifth Circuit concludes that the CFPB’s structure is unconstitutional, the proper remedy is to strike the for-cause removal provision.

The appellants have been granted an extension of the time to file their reply brief until October 1.  Last month, they filed a petition asking the Fifth Circuit to hear their interlocutory appeal as an initial matter en banc and the petition remains pending.

 

A petition for certiorari was filed in the U.S. Supreme Court late last week by State National Bank of Big Spring (SNB) which, together with two D.C. area non-profit organizations that also joined in the petition, had brought one of the first lawsuits challenging the CFPB’s constitutionality.

Originally filed in 2012 in D.C. federal district court, the complaint alleged that the CFPB’s structure violated the U.S. Constitution’s separation of powers. The district court dismissed for lack of standing but on appeal, the D.C. Circuit held that the plaintiffs did have standing and remanded the case to the district court.  Further proceedings in the case were held in abeyance by the district court pending the outcome of the PHH case in the D.C. Circuit.

Following the D.C. Circuit’s en banc PHH decision that held the CFPB’s structure is constitutional, the district court lifted its abeyance order and, with the parties having agreed that PHH foreclosed the district court from ruling in favor of the plaintiffs on their constitutional challenge, entered judgment against the plaintiffs.  On June 8, 2018, the D.C Circuit entered an order summarily affirming the district court’s judgment.  Citing its en banc PHH decision, the D.C. Circuit order stated that “the merits of the parties’ positions are so clear as to warrant summary action.”

In their petition for certiorari seeking Supreme Court review of the D.C. Circuit’s June 8 order,  SNB and the non-profits urge the Supreme Court to grant the petition “to resolve the conflict” between PHH and the Fifth Circuit’s decision in Collins v. Mnuchin.  In Collins, the Fifth Circuit ruled that the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) is unconstitutionally structured because it is excessively insulated from Executive Branch oversight.  While stating that it was “mindful” of the D.C. Circuit’s en banc PHH decision, the Fifth Circuit found that “salient distinctions” between the CFPB’s structure and the FHFA’s structure dictated different conclusions as to each agency’s constitutionality.  SNB and the non-profits argue in their petition that “the approaches of the D.C. Circuit and the Fifth Circuit cannot be reconciled.”

We continue to follow two other active cases involving challenges to the CFPB’s constitutionality that could come before the Supreme Court.  In April 2018, the Fifth Circuit agreed to hear All American Check Cashing’s interlocutory appeal from the district court’s ruling upholding the CFPB’s constitutionality.  In RD Legal Funding, Judge Preska of the Southern District of New York is expected to soon enter a Rule 54(b) judgment against the CFPB so that it can file an appeal with the Second Circuit from her June 21 order in which she ruled that the CFPB’s structure is unconstitutional and struck all of Title X of Dodd-Frank.

 

 

The CFPB has filed a proposed Rule 54(b) judgment in the RD Legal Funding case.  The proposed judgment provides that “for the reasons stated in the Court’s June 21, 2018 Order, (ECF No. 80), final judgment is hereby entered pursuant to Rule 54(b) against the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau and in favor of Defendants [RD Legal Funding et al.]”

In her June 21 order, Judge Preska ruled that the CFPB’s structure is unconstitutional and struck all of Title X of Dodd-Frank.  Since Judge Preska, on August 23, entered an order granting the CFPB’s request for entry of a Rule 54(b) judgment so that it could appeal her June 21 ruling, she can be expected to sign the proposed order.  In a letter accompanying the proposed order, the CFPB states that “the parties have conferred” and the NYAG and all of the defendants “do not object to the proposed judgment.”

 

The New York Attorney General has sent a letter to Judge Preska asking her to clarify her August 23 order granting the CFPB’s request for entry of a Rule 54(b) judgment so that it can appeal her June 21 constitutionality ruling.  In the August 23 order, Judge Preska also denied RD Legal’s request that she certify the remainder of her ruling for interlocutory appeal but granted RD Legal’s request to stay the district court proceedings pending the outcome of the CFPB’s appeal.

In her June 21 ruling, Judge Preska held that that the CFPB’s single-director-removable-only-for-cause structure is unconstitutional, struck the CFPA (Title X of Dodd-Frank) in its entirety, dismissed the CFPB from the case, and allowed the New York Attorney General to proceed with its CFPA and state law claims.  RD Legal had argued that Judge Preska’s dismissal of the CFPB from the case and striking of Dodd-Frank Title X necessitated her dismissal of the NYAG’s CFPA claims against RD Legal.  Accordingly, it had asked Judge Preska to dismiss the NYAG’s federal claims with prejudice and dismiss the NYAG’s state law claims for lack of federal subject matter jurisdiction without prejudice to their being refiled in state court.

Judge Preska’s August 23 order appears to implicitly accept RD Legal’s argument that her constitutionality ruling, if upheld by the Second Circuit, would require dismissal of the NYAG’s CFPA claims.  In its letter, the NYAG asks her to provide answers to three questions that it deems “essential to determining the NYAG’s further conduct in this case.”

The NYAG asks Judge Preska:

  • Whether the NYAG’s CFPA claims remain before the court because it has found that it has jurisdiction to hear those claims
  • Whether, if the court actually dismissed the NYAG’s CFPA claims in its June 21 ruling, the court retained jurisdiction over the NYAG’s state law claims because the claims contain an embedded federal law question (which the NYAG has previously identified to be whether the transactions that RD Legal Funding entered into with consumers entitled to benefits under the September 11th Victim Compensation Fund of 2001 were void under the federal Anti-Assignment Act and therefore loans subject to New York usury law)
  • Whether, even if the court dismissed the NYAG’s CFPA claims and found that it lacked jurisdiction to hear the NYAG’s state law claims based on the existence of an embedded federal law question, the court has nonetheless exercised its jurisdiction to retain supplemental jurisdiction over the state law claims

The NYAG observes that by staying the case as to the NYAG rather than dismissing all of its claims, “it appears that the Court has determined that it retains some jurisdiction over at least some claims.” (emphasis provided).  According to the NYAG, if the court has dismissed the NYAG’s CFPA claims in their entirety, “the NYAG may wish to seek leave to have the dismissal certified for interlocutory appeal in the hopes of having such an appeal consolidated with the CFPB’s so that all CFPA claims in this case might be reviewed at once.”  The NYAG also indicates that if the court has dismissed the NYAG’s CFPA claims entirely but retained jurisdiction over the state law claims, the NYAG may need to “seek vindication of its state law claims in state court” rather than wait for an appeal to be decided because of “the age and ill health of some of the New York residents who are victims in this case.”  Finally, the NYAG indicates that “giving the parties certainty about their positions will facilitate any settlement discussions that may take place during the stay.”